DALI: General system description

26 10 2011

For the digital interface, specified in the draft of the IEC standard, there are several features, which operate under different principals than the features of the analog interface. Principally the digital interface represents an interface structure for lighting applications that can be enlarged. This new interface does not compete with BMS. The analog interface and the signal level 1–10V allow for a connection of functional units (sensors and actuators) from different illumination electronics manufacturers. The 1–10V interface does not allow an individual addressing. Consequently all units, which are connected to a 1–10V interface,
can be addressed in common only. Furthermore, the lamps luminous flux relation has not been standardized with reference to the interface voltage (light differences). Another disadvantage is the fact that it is impossible to switch off the 1–10V units by means of the interface. To disconnect the units they need to be separated from the mains voltage.

Characteristics and features of the digital interface:

Definition in IEC 60929 – this allows the combination ofunits from different manufacturers. It must be emphasized as a special fact that all manufacturers, who are represented in the AG DALI, have made a joint effort to verify the compliance of their units with this standard to guarantee a high functional security.
Effective data transfer rate (1.200 bits/sek.) – enables an interference-free operation of the system. The physical low-level has been defined with the interface voltage at 0 Volt (- 4.5 Volt to + 4.5 Volt) on the receiver’s side. The high-level condition is represented by the interface voltage of 16 Volt (9.5 Volt to 22.5 Volt) on the receiving side. A maximum voltage decrease of 2 V between sender and receiver is admissible on the leads of the interface.

Safety distance of interference voltage – a safe operation is guaranteed by the large-scale interference voltage distance between the sender and the receiver side.
Data coding – the Manchester-Code has been used here; its structure allows the detection of transmission errors.
Maximum system current – the central interface power supply has been set to allow a maximum current input of 250 mA. Each participant connected to the interface may consume a maximum of 2 mA. This must be taken into consideration for the selection of the power supply interface.

Limited system size – the maximum number of 64 units with an individual address can be distinguished within a system.
Revertive signals of information – e.g. ON/OFF, actual brightness of the connected lamps, lamp state etc. are possible.

Two-wire control lead – two base-isolations should be provided between two leads. A single-threaded isolation of a lead is therefore sufficient.
Control and supply leads can be wired together, make sure to install a minimum lead diameter according to the following table:

Lead length                       Minimum lead diameter
up to100 meters                           0,5 mm2
100 – 150 meters                         0,75 mm2
above 150 meters                        1,5 mm2

The maximum lead length between two connected systems must not exceed 300 meters.
Potentialfree control input – the control input is separated galvanically from the mains voltage. Consequently all system participants may be operated with different outer conductors (phases).
No termination resistors required – it is not necessary to terminate the interface leads with resistors.
Dimming range 0.1 % –100 % – the lower limit depends on the manufacturer. The course of the dimming curve is standardized and adapted to the sensitivity of the eye (logarithmic dimming curve). The impression of a similar
brightness, when electronic ballasts of different manufacturers are used, is a result of the standardization. This requires
however, that the lower limit of the dimming range is equal for all units (e.g. all units show a lower dimming range of 3 %) belonging to the same power class (lamp power).
Programmable dimming times – special adjustments like adjusting light change speeds are possible.
Interruption of the data transfer – fixed light adjustments are interpreted automatically (emergency operation).
Storage of lighting scenes – a storage of up to 16 scenes is possible.
Connection to Building Management Systems by converters – the very first design intent has been to apply the interface in rooms for an integration into BMS by means of converters.
Easy new configuration of the system – Once installed and configurated, a modification of the system function, the illumination scene or the illumination functions is only a question of configuration requiring no modification of the hardware. Example: Regrouping of luminaires into an open-plan office.
Easy integration of new components – new components can be added everywhere within the system whenever an
existing illumination system needs to be enlarged. Consideration should be made that the dimensioning of the
system power supply will be sufficient.

Domonetio.com. Portal colaborativo dedicado a la domótica, inmótica y urbótica.

25 10 2011

A partir de hoy tendremos un enlace en nuestro blog a la web Domonetio. com (antes KNX forum). He tenido la ocasión de conocer a José María Morcillo en Londres en el último Worldskills. Cámara en mano, entrevistando en el Skill de electricidad (que incorporaba por primera vez KNX en la prueba) al presidente de FENIE.

He seguido su web desde su inicio y os tengo que decir que es excelente para el integrador domótico y va creciendo de forma exponencial. Acertado también el cambio de nombre, para no ligar sólo a un protocolo la información.

También organizan cursos de formación presenciales y no presenciales.

Mucha suerte.

Mas información http://www.domonetio.com

What is DALI?

24 10 2011

DALI stands for Digital Addressable Lighting Interface. It is an International Standard (IEC 62386) lighting control system providing a single interface for all Electronic Control Gears (light sources) and Electronic Control Devices (lighting controllers)

The DALI Standard enables dimmable ballasts, transformers, relay modules, emergency fittings and controllers from different manufacturers to be mixed and matched into a single control system. A DALI system provides designers, installers, building owners, facility managers and end-users a powerful and flexible digital lighting system with security of supply from many sources.
The DALI Standard is overseen by the AG-DALI activity group comprising engineers, manufacturers and institutions working in the field of digital lamp/luminaire control.

DALI is effectively an enhancement on DSI control with the added advantages it has interoperability, status feedback and advanced control.

IEC 62386 Digital Addressable Lighting Interface

  • Part 100 – General requirements
  • Part 101: System
  • Part 102: Control Gears
  • Part 103: Control Devices
  • Part 200 – Particular requirements for control gear
  • Part 201: Fluorescent Lamps
  • Part 202: Self-contained Emergency Lighting
  • Part 203: Discharge Lamps
  • Part 204: Low Voltage Halogen Lamps
  • Part 205: Incandescent Lamps
  • Part 206: Conversion from Digital Signal into D.C. Voltage
  • Part 207: LED modules
  • Part 208: Switching Function
  • Part 209: Colour control
  • Part 210: Sequencer
  • Part 300 – Particular requirements for Control Devices

What is a DALI Line?
A DALI Line is a network of up to 64 DALI light sources (ballasts, transformers, emergency fittings etc.), addressed from 0 to 63. DALI ballasts are controlled by commands that can be sent to individual ballasts, to groups of ballasts or broadcast to all ballasts on the line
A DALI ballast is an intelligent device that can be configured to remember its power-on level, maximum level, minimum level, system failure level, fade rate and fade time. A ballast can belong to up to 16 groups and store up to 16 preset scene levels.
A true DALI lighting system can report the level of every ballast and the status of everyballast and lamp. It can automatically test emergency fittings and report their status. True DALI systems also enable controllers from multiple vendors to be used on the DALI Line.
What are the components of a DALI Line?
A DALI Line consists of the following components:

  • One or more DALI Power Supplies to a maximum current of 250mA
  • From one to sixty-four DALI ECGs ie. ballasts, transformers, inverters, relay modules, EXIT signs etc.
  • One or more DALI ECDs ie. Line controller, group controller, sensor, switchplate etc

What is a DALI Control System?

DALI Control lighting systems can be scaled from single rooms to complete buildings and campuses.
A simple system could consist of a few light fittings and a switch connected to a DALI group controller. The switch provides on/off control and up/down dimming of the fittings. Minimal configuration is required and ballasts do not need to be individually addressed.
A grouped system consists of multiple ballasts individually addressed on a DALI Line. Addressing of the ballasts takes approximately 15 minutes for random addressing and 30 minutes for sequential addressing. Inputs on a Line Controller or a group controller can be configured to provide switching and dimming as required. The functionality of the inputs depend on the controller’s capabilities however typical examples include switches, pushbuttons, occupancy sensors and light level sensors.
Multiple DALI Lines can be linked together with DCBM DALI Line Controllers that combine DALI Lines onto an Ethernet backbone.

Advantages of DALI?

What are the advantages of DALI for you:

For lighting designers and consultants

  • Distributed intelligence for flexible and reliable control
  • Control of individual lights, groups and DALI Lines
  • Easy configuration & reconfiguration for changing circumstances
  • Simple interface with building management systems
  • Logarithmic dimming behaviour matching the human eye
  • Increased energy savings
  • Options for emergency lighting

For installers and electrical contractors

  • Simple 5-core wiring, no special control cable, no polarity, no termination and no segregation required
  • Easy base-building commissioning
  • Easy commissioning for tenancies
  • Building lighting and emergency lighting on the one system
  • No need to switch the mains voltage (handled internally by the ballasts)

For facilities managers & maintenance contractors

  • Status reporting of lamps and ballasts
  • Simple modification – no need to rewire for changing tenancies
  • Lower maintenance costs
  • Increased energy savings due to dimming and control capabilities

For building occupants & tenants

  • Customized lighting preferences
  • More comfortable lighting
  • Individual control
  • Easy modification

Generation KNX at WorldSkills 2011 in London

24 10 2011

The international young competition WorldSkills 2011 in London for the first time based on KNX

What is WorldSkills?

WorldSkills – the largest vocational skills competition in the world for non-academic professions – is organized every 2 years and attracts thousands of visitors. WorldSkills is a unique global Competition, where young people up to 23 years old from across the world compete to become the best of the best. This event is also known as the Olympic Games for Non-Sportive Disciplines (Skills). For general information, please see here.

The world’s biggest skills competition for the artisanal sector consists of 45 major professional disciplines. In Skill 18, the electrical installers are tested. For the first time, the WorldSkills Chief Expert and the technical team decided that the skill “Electrical Installation” will be based on KNX. The world’s best electrical craftsmen has competed in London between 5 and 8 October.

The facts and figures of WorldSkills:

  • 150,000 visitors
  • 1000 competitors
  • 50 nations
  • 45 skills
  • 4 days of competition
  • worldwide press and media (videos, PRs, Press Conference,…)

More info http://www.worldskillslondon2011.com/

20 years of KNX story

16 10 2011

KNX Communication: Physical layers

14 10 2011

The KNX system offers the choice for the manufacturers, depending on his market requirements and habits, to choose between several physical layers, or to combine them. With the availability of routers, and combined with the powerful interworking, multi-media, and also multi-vendor configurations can be built.
The different media are :
• TPo, inherited from BatiBUS, and TP1, basic medium of EIB, provide both improved solutions for twisted pair cabling, both using a SELV network and supply system. Main characteristics are : data and power transmission with one pair (devices with limited power consumption may be powered by the bus), and asynchronous character oriented data transfer and half duplex bi-directional communication. TP0 transmission rate is 4.8kbits/s while TP1 is 9.6 kbits/s. Both media implement a CSMA/CA collision avoidance. All topologies may be used and mixed ( line, star, tree, ….)
• PL 110, from EIB, and PL 132 from EHS, enable communication over the mains supply network. Main characteristics are :
• Spread frequency shift keying signalling,
• Asynchronous transmission of data packets

• Half duplex bi-directional communication.
Both differ mainly by their central frequency; 110 and 132 kHz, their decoding process, and data rate; PL110=1200 bits/sec; PL132 = 2400 bits/sec. Both media implement CSMA and are compliant to EN 50065-1, respectively in frequency band without and with standard access medium protocol.
• RF, and IR will soon be specified to communicate in the same way over radio-frequency, or Infra-red media.
• Beyond these Device Network media, KNX has unified service- and integration solutions for IP-enabled media like Ethernet (IEEE 802.2), Bluetooth, WiFi /Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11), “FireWire” (IEEE 1394) etc.


Elements of the KNX architecture

12 10 2011

KNX specifies many mechanisms and ingredients to bring the network into operation, while enabling manufacturers to choose the most adapted configuration for their market. The following figure shows an overview of the KNX model, bringing the emphasis on the various open choices. Rather than a formal protocol description the following details the components or bricks that may be chosen to implement in the devices and other components a full operational system.

As essential ingredients of KNX, we find in a rather top-down view:
• Interworking and (Distributed) Application Models for the various tasks of Home and Building Automation; this is after all the main purpose of the system.
• Schemes for Configuration and Management, to properly manage all resources on the network, and to permit the logical linking or binding of parts of a distributed application, which run in different nodes. KNX structures these in a comprehensive set of Configuration Modes.
• a Communication System, with a set of physical communication media, a message protocol and corresponding models for the communication stack in each node; this Communication System has to support all network communication requirements for the Configuration and Management of an installation, as well as to host Distributed Applications on it. This is typified by the KNX Common Kernel.
• Concrete Device Models, summarized in Profiles for the effective realization and combination of the elements above when developing actual products or devices, which will be mounted and linked in an installation.


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